Mg ribbon will often have a thin layer of magnesium oxide on it formed by reaction with oxygen. Nitrogen is often thought of as being fairly unreactive, and yet all these metals combine with it to produce nitrides, X3N2, containing X2+ and N3- ions. The size of the lattice energy depends on the attractions between the ions. Mixtures of barium oxide and barium peroxide will be produced. Calcium is quite reluctant to start burning, but then bursts dramatically into flame, burning with an intense white flame with a tinge of red at the end. The Reactions with Air. On the whole, the metals burn in oxygen to form a simple metal oxide. Energy is evolved when the ions come together to produce the crystal lattice. The general trend in acidity in oxides of the Period 3 elements as we go across the period from left (Group 1) to right (Group 17): basic oxides (Group 1, 2) → amphoteric oxide (Al 2 O 3) → acidic oxides (oxyacids) The same trend can be seen in each period of the Periodic table and we have: Bases react with acids such is HCl: Beryllium, magnesium and calcium don't form peroxides when heated in oxygen, but strontium and barium do. When the crystal lattices form, so much energy is released that it more than compensates for the energy needed to produce the various ions in the first place. A high charge density simply means that you have a lot of charge packed into a small volume. Acid-Base reactions are not Redox reactions because there are no changes in Oxidation number. Mg(OH) 2(s) + 2 HCl (aq) → MgCl 2(aq) + 2 H 2 O (l) The Mg ions remain 2+ The Oxygen is -2 in the OH-ion, and -2 in water. This is in contrast to what happens in Group 1 of the Periodic Table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium). The activation energy is much higher. (i) The Reactions of Group 2 Elements with Oxygen. But how reactive a metal seems to be depends on how fast the reaction happens - not the overall amount of heat evolved. The reactions of the Group 2 metals with air rather than oxygen is complicated by the fact that they all react with nitrogen to produce nitrides. This page looks at the reactions of the Group 2 elements - beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium - with air or oxygen. Beryllium is reluctant to burn unless it is in the form of dust or powder. They react violently in pure oxygen producing a white ionic oxide. Formation of simple oxides. Strontium forms this if it is heated in oxygen under high pressures, but barium forms barium peroxide just on normal heating in oxygen. Now imagine bringing a small 2+ ion close to the peroxide ion. The speed is controlled by factors like the presence of surface coatings on the metal and the size of the activation energy. It can't be done! This Module addressed why it is difficult to observe a tidy pattern of this reactivity. Strontium: I have only seen this burn on video. Lithium is the only metal in Group 1 to form a nitride. Magnesium, of course, burns with a typical intense white flame. On the whole, the metals burn in oxygen to form a simple metal oxide. You might possibly be able to imagine a trace of very pale greenish colour surrounding the white flame in the third video, but to my eye, they all count as a white flame. . Nitrogen is fairly unreactive because of the very large amount of energy is required to break the triple bond joining the two atoms in the nitrogen molecule, N2. with \(X\) representing any group 2 metal. 2Mg + O2 2MgO This needs to be cleaned off by emery paper before doing reactions with Mg ribbon. You haven't had to heat them by the same amount to get the reactions happening. You could argue that the activation energy will fall as you go down the Group and that will make the reaction go faster. Reaction of Group-2 Metals with Cl 2 : All Gr-2 metals except Be react with chlorine to give ionic chlorides whereas Be reacts with chlorine to give covalent chloride . Water: oxygen, to forma metal oxide with the formula MO where M is the metal and O is oxygen ... (OH)2 is only sparingly soluble. This energy has to be recovered from somewhere to give an overall exothermic reaction - if the energy can't be recovered, the overall change will be endothermic and will not happen. Reactivity increases down the group. We say that the positive ion polarises the negative ion. This energy has to be recovered from somewhere to give an overall exothermic reaction - if the energy can't be recovered, the overall change will be endothermic and won't happen. The reactions of the Group 2 metals with air rather than oxygen is complicated by the fact that they all react with nitrogen to produce nitrides. The chemical properties of Group2 elements are dominated by the strong reducing power of the metals. Lithium is the only metal in Group 1 to form a nitride. As I said earlier, they are powerful reducing age… In each case, you will get a mixture of the metal oxide and the metal nitride. To be able to make any sensible comparison, you would have to have pieces of metal which were all equally free of oxide coating, with exactly the same surface area and shape, exactly the same flow of oxygen around them, and heated to exactly the same extent to get them started. The activation energy will fall because the ionisation energies of the metals fall. Reactions with oxygen … 2:07 understand how displacement reactions involving halogens and halides provide evidence for the trend in reactivity in Group 7; 2:08 (Triple only) explain the trend in reactivity in Group 7 in terms of electronic configurations (c) Gases in the atmosphere. As group 2 in the periodic table comprises of metals, the reactivity of group 2 elements towards chlorine increases when working our way down the group 2 metals. A/AS level. Their ions only carry one positive charge, and so the lattice energies of their nitrides will be much less. Representative reactions of alkaline earth metals. It cannot be said that by moving down the group these metals burn more vigorously. . Ca + Cl 2 → CaCl 2. The peroxide ion, O22- looks like this: The covalent bond between the two oxygen atoms is relatively weak. \[ Ba_{(s)} + O_{2(s)} \rightarrow BaO_{2(s)}\]. This is compared to non-metals when the reactivity decreases working down a non-metal group such as group 7. For example, the familiar white ash you get when you burn magnesium ribbon in air is a mixture of magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride. 2.11.3 investigate and describe the reactions of the elements with oxygen, water and dilute acids; In this case, though, the effect of the fall in the activation energy is masked by other factors - for example, the presence of existing oxide layers on the metals, and the impossibility of controlling precisely how much heat you are supplying to the metal in order to get it to start burning. Lithium has by far the smallest ion in the Group, and so lithium nitride has the largest lattice energy of any possible Group 1 nitride. REACTIONS OF THE GROUP 2 ELEMENTS WITH AIR OR OXYGEN This page looks at the reactions of the Group 2 elements - beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium - with air or oxygen. When these metals (M) are heated in oxygen they burn vigorously to produce a white ionic oxide, M2+O2-. It would be quite untrue to say that they burn more vigorously as you go down the Group. All group 2 elements want to lose 2 electrons and all group 6 elements (oxygen) want to gain 2 electrons. The Facts. The reactions of the Group 2 metals with air rather than oxygen is complicated by the fact that they all react with nitrogen to produce nitrides. The familiar white ash you get when you burn magnesium ribbon in air is a mixture of magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride (despite what you might have been told when you were first learning Chemistry!). (a) describe the redox reactions of the Group 2 elements Mg to Ba: (i) with oxygen, (ii) with water; (b) explain the trend in reactivity of Group 2 elements down the group due to the increasing ease of forming cations, in terms of atomic size, shielding and nuclear attraction; Reactions of Group 2 compounds Missed the LibreFest? Legal. Question: (a) Write Chemical Equations For The Reactions Of Oxygen With Group 1 Metals And Group 2 Metals Respectiv (4 Marks) (b) Discuss The Trend Of Thermal Stability Of Group 1 And Group 2 Peroxides. 2Li(s) + Cl 2 (g) → 2LiCl(s) A similar reaction takes place with the other elements of group 7. M = Mg, Ca, Sr,Ba --> I will be using 'M' as the general symbol for a Group II element in this topic. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. 2:09 know the approximate percentages by volume of the four most abundant gases in dry air (3 Marks) (d) Heating Group 2 Carbonates, Such As CaCO3 Leads To Decomposition. It would obviously be totally misleading to say that magnesium is more reactive than potassium on the evidence of the bright flame. 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